Multiprocessor Scheduling




Multiple-Processor Scheduling

 Our discussion thus far has focused on the problems of scheduling the CPU in a system with a single processor. If multiple CPUs are available, load sharing becomes possible; however, the scheduling problem becomes correspondingly more complex.

Many possibilities have been tried; and as we saw with singleprocessor CPU scheduling, there is no one best solution. Here, we discuss several concerns in multiprocessor scheduling. We concentrate on systems in which the processors are identical—homogeneous—in terms of their functionality; we can then use any available processor to run any process in the queue. (Note, however, that even with homogeneous multiprocessors, there are sometimes limitations on scheduling. Consider a system with an I/O device attached to a private bus of one processor.

Processes that wish to use that device must be scheduled to run on that processor.) 5.4.1 Approaches to Multiple-Processor Scheduling One approach to CPU scheduling in a multiprocessor system has all scheduling decisions, I/O processing, and other system activities handled by a single processor—the master server. The other processors execute only user code. This asymmetric multiprocessing is simple because only one processor accesses the system data structures, reducing the need for data sharing. A second approach uses symmetric multiprocessing (SMP), where each processor is self-scheduling. All processes may be in a common ready queue, or each processor may have its own private queue of ready processes.

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 Regardless, scheduling proceeds by having the scheduler for each processor examine the ready queue and select a process to execute. As we shall see in Chapter 6, if we have multiple processors trying to access and update a common data structure, the scheduler must be programmed carefully: We must ensure that 170 Chapter 5 CPU Scheduling two processors do not choose the same process and that processes are n&t lost from the queue. Virtually all modern operating systems support SMP, including Windows XP, Windows 2000, Solaris, Linux, and Mac OS X. In the remainder of this section, we will discuss issues concerning SMP systems.

Processor Affinity

 Consider what happens to cache memory when a process has been running on a specific processor; The data most recently accessed by the process populates the cache for the processor; and as a result, successive memory accesses by the process are often satisfied in cache memory. Now consider what happens if the process migrates to another processor:

The contents of cache memory must be invalidated for the processor being migrated from, and the cache for the processor being migrated to must be re-populated. Because of the high cost of invalidating and re-populating caches, most SMP systems try to avoid migration of processes from one processor to another and instead attempt to keep a process running on the same processor. This is known as processor affinity, meaning that a process has an affinity for the processor on which it is currently running. Processor affinity takes several forms.

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When an operating system has a policy of attempting to keep a process running on the same processor—but not guaranteeing that it will do so— we have a situation known as soft affinity. Here, it is possible for a process to migrate between processors. Some systems —such as Linux—also provide system calls that support hard affinity, thereby allowing a process to specify that it is not to migrate to other processors.

Load Balancing

 On SMP systems, it is important to keep the workload balanced among all processors to fully utilize the benefits of having more than one processor. Otherwise, one or more processors may sit idle while other processors have high workloads along with lists of processes awaiting the CPU. Load balancing attempts to keep the workload evenly distributed across all processors in an SMP system. It is important to note that load balancing is typically only necessary on systems where each processor has its own private queue of eligible processes to execute.

 On systems with a common run queue, load balancing is often unnecessary, because once a processor becomes idle, it immediately extracts a runnable process from the common run queue. It is also important to note, however, that in most contemporary operating systems supporting SMP, each processor does have a private queue of eligible processes. There are two general approaches to load balancing: push migration and pull migration. With push migration, a specific task periodically checks the load on each processor and—if it finds an imbalance—-evenly distributes the load by moving (or pushing) processes from overloaded to idle or less-busy processors. Pull migration occurs when an idle processor pulls a waiting task from a busy processor.

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 Push and pull migration need not be mutually exclusive and are in fact often implemented in parallel on load-balancing systems. For example, the Linux scheduler (described in Section 5.6.3) and the ULE scheduler available for FreeBSD systems implement both techniques. Linux runs its load- 5.4 Multiple-Processor Scheduling 171 balancing algorithm every 200 milliseconds (push migration) or whenever the run queue for a processor is empty (pull migration). Interestingly, load balancing often counteracts the benefits of processor affinity, discussed in Section 5.4.2. That is, the benefit of keeping a process running on the same processor is that the process can take advantage of its data being in that processor's cache memory.

 By either pulling or pushing a process from one processor to another, we invalidate this benefit. As is often the case in systems engineering, there is no absolute rule concerning what policy is best. Thus, in some systems, an idle processor always pulls a process from a non-idle processor; and in other systems, processes are moved only if the imbalance exceeds a certain threshold.

Symmetric Multithreading

SMP systems allow several threads to run concurrently by providing multiple physical processors. An alternative strategy is to provide multiple logical— rather than physical—processors. Such a strategy is known as symmetric multithreading (or SMT); it has also been termed hyperthreading technology on Intel processors. The idea behind SMT is to create multiple logical processors on the same physical processor, presenting a view of several logical processors to the operating system, even on a system with only a single physical processor. Each logical processor has its own architecture state, which includes general-purpose and machine-state registers. Furthermore, each logical processor is responsible for its own interrupt handling, meaning that interrupts are delivered to—and handled by—logical processors rather than physical ones. Otherwise, each logical processor shares the resources of its physical processor, such as cache memory and buses.

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Figure 5.8 illustrates a typical SMT architecture with two physical processors, each housing two logical processors. From the operating system's perspective, four processors are available for work on this system. It is important to recognize that SMT is a feature provided in hardware, not software. That is, hardware must provide the representation of the architecture state for each logical processor, as well as interrupt handling. Operating systems need not necessarily be designed differently if they are to run on an SMT system; however, certain performance gains are possible if the operating system is aware that it is running on such a system.

Multiprocessor Scheduling

For example, consider a system with two physical processors, both of which are idle. The scheduler should first try scheduling separate threads on each physical processor rather than on separate logical processors on the same physical processor. Otherwise, both logical processors on one physical processor could be busy while the other physical processor remained idle.



Frequently Asked Questions

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Ans: Performance I/O is a major factor in system performance. It places heavy demands on the CPU to execute device-driver code and to schedule processes fairly and efficiently as they block and unblock. The resulting context switches stress the CPU and its hardware caches. I/O also exposes any inefficiencies in the interrupt-handling mechanisms in the kernel. view more..
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Ans: STREAMS UNIX System V has an interesting mechanism, called STREAMS, that enables an application to assemble pipelines of driver code dynamically. A stream is a full-duplex connection between a device driver and a user-level process. It consists of a stream head that interfaces with the user process, a driver end that controls the device, and zero or more stream modules between them. view more..
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Ans: Transforming I/O Requests to Hardware Operations Earlier, we described the handshaking between a device driver and a device controller, but we did not explain how the operating system connects an application request to a set of network wires or to a specific disk sector. Let's consider the example of reading a file from disk. The application refers to the data by a file name. Within a disk, the file system maps from the file name through the file-system directories to obtain the space allocation of the file. For instance, in MS-DOS, the name maps to a number that indicates an entry in the file-access table, and that table entry tells which disk blocks are allocated to the file. In UNIX, the name maps to an inode number, and the corresponding inode contains the space-allocation information. How is the connection made from the file name to the disk controller (the hardware port address or the memory-mapped controller registers)? First, we consider MS-DOS, a relatively simple operating system. The first part of an MS-DOS file name, preceding the colon, is a string that identifies a specific hardware device. For example, c: is the first part of every file name on the primary hard disk view more..
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Ans: Multiple-Processor Scheduling Our discussion thus far has focused on the problems of scheduling the CPU in a system with a single processor. If multiple CPUs are available, load sharing becomes possible; however, the scheduling problem becomes correspondingly more complex. Many possibilities have been tried; and as we saw with singleprocessor CPU scheduling, there is no one best solution. Here, we discuss several concerns in multiprocessor scheduling. We concentrate on systems in which the processors are identical—homogeneous—in terms of their functionality; we can then use any available processor to run any process in the queue. (Note, however, that even with homogeneous multiprocessors, there are sometimes limitations on scheduling. Consider a system with an I/O device attached to a private bus of one processor. view more..
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Ans: Structure of the Page Table In this section, we explore some of the most common techniques for structuring the page table. view more..
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Ans: Linux History Linux looks and feels much like any other UNIX system; indeed, UNIX compatibility has been a major design goal of the Linux project. However, Linux is much younger than most UNIX systems. Its development began in 1991, when a Finnish student, Linus Torvalds, wrote and christened Linux, a small but self-contained kernel for the 80386 processor, the first true 32-bit processor in Intel's range of PC-compatible CPUs. Early in its development, the Linux source code was made available free on the Internet. view more..
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Ans: Example: The Intel Pentium Both paging and segmentation have advantages and disadvantages. In fact, some architectures provide both. In this section, we discuss the Intel Pentium architecture, which supports both pure segmentation and segmentation with paging. We do not give a complete description of the memory-management structure of the Pentium in this text. view more..
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Ans: System and Network Threats Program threats typically use a breakdown in the protection mechanisms of a system to attack programs. In contrast, system and network threats involve the abuse of services and network connections. Sometimes a system and network attack is used to launch a program attack, and vice versa. System and network threats create a situation in which operating-system resources and user files are misused. Here, we discuss some examples of these threats, including worms, port scanning, and denial-of-service attacks. view more..
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Ans: User Authentication The discussion of authentication above involves messages and sessions. But what of users? If a system cannot authenticate a user, then authenticating that a message came from that user is pointless. Thus, a major security problem for operating systems is user authentication. The protection system depends on the ability to identify the programs and processes currently executing, which in turn depends on the ability to identify each user of the system. view more..
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Ans: Firewalling to Protect Systems and Networks We turn next to the question of how a trusted computer can be connected safely to an untrustworthy network. One solution is the use of a firewall to separate trusted and untrusted systems. A firewall is a computer, appliance, or router that sits between the trusted and the untrusted. A network firewall limits network access between the two security domains and monitors and logs all connections. It can also limit connections based on source or destination address, source or destination port, or direction of the connection. For instance, web servers use HTTP to communicate with web browsers. A firewall therefore may allow only HTTP to pass from all hosts outside the firewall to the web server within the firewall. The Morris Internet worm used the f inger protocol to break into computers, so finger would not be allowed to pass, for example. view more..
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Ans: Algorithm Evaluation How do we select a CPU scheduling algorithm for a particular system? there are many scheduling algorithms, each with its own parameters. As a result, selecting an algorithm can be difficult. The first problem is defining the criteria to be used in selecting an algorithm. As we saw in Section 5.2, criteria are often defined in terms of CPU utilization, response time, or throughput. To select an algorithm, we must first define the relative importance of these measures. Our criteria may include several measures, such as: • Maximizing CPU utilization under the constraint that the maximum response time is 1 second • Maximizing throughput such that turnaround time is (on average) linearly proportional to total execution time Once the selection criteria have been defined, we want to evaluate the algorithms under consideration. view more..
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Ans: Atlas The Atlas operating system (Kilburn et al. [1961], Howarth et al. [1961]) was designed at the University of Manchester in England in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Many of its basic features that were novel at the time have become standard parts of modern operating systems. Device drivers were a major part of the system. In addition, system calls were added by a set of special instructions called extra codes. Atlas was a batch operating system with spooling. Spooling allowed the system to schedule jobs according to the availability of peripheral devices, such as magnetic tape units, paper tape readers, paper tape punches, line printers, card readers, and card punches. 846 Chapter 23 Influential Operating Systems The most remarkable feature of Atlas, however, was its memory management. Core memory was new and expensive at the time. Many computers, like the IBM 650, used a drum for primary memory. view more..
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Ans: XDS-940 The XDS-940 operating system (Lichtenberger and Pirtle [1965]) was designed at the University of California at Berkeley. Like the Atlas system, it used paging for memory management. Unlike the Atlas system, it was a time-shared system. The paging was used only for relocation; it was not used for demand paging. The virtual memory of any user process was made up of 16-KB words, whereas the physical memory was made up of 64-KB words view more..
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Ans: THE The THE operating system (Dijkstra [1968], McKeag and Wilson [1976]) was designed at the Technische Hogeschool at Eindhoven in the Netherlands. It was a batch system running on a Dutch computer, the EL X8, with 32 KB of 27-bit words. The system was mainly noted for its clean design, particularly its layer structure, and its use of a set of concurrent processes employing semaphores for synchronization. Unlike the XDS-940 system, however, the set of processes in the THE system was static. view more..




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