What is IBM OS/360?




IBM OS/360

 The longest line of operating-system development is undoubtedly that of IBM computers. The early IBM computers, such as the IBM 7090 and the IBM 7094, are prime examples of the development of common I/O subroutines, followed by development of a resident monitor, privileged instructions, memory protection, and simple batch processing. These systems were developed separately, often by each site independently. As a result, IBM was faced with many different computers, with different languages and different system software.

What is IBM OS/360?

The IBM/360 was designed to alter this situation. The IBM/360 was designed as a family of computers spanning the complete range from small business machines to large scientific machines. Only one set of software would be needed for these systems, which all used the same operating system: OS/360 (Mealy et al. [1966]). This arrangement was intended to reduce maintenance problems for IBM and to allow users to move programs and applications freely from one IBM system to another.

Topics You May Be Interested In
Distributed Operating Systems Petersons's Solution
Real Time Operating System System Model
Various Operating System Services Deadlock Characteristics
Layered Architecture Of Operating System Memory Mapped Files
Operations On Process What Is The Wafl File System?

Unfortunately, OS/360 tried to be all things for all people. As a result, it did none of its tasks especially well. The file system included a type field that defined the type of each file, and different file types were defined for fixed-length and variable-length records and for blocked and unblocked files. Contiguous allocation was used, so the user had to guess the size of each output file. The Job Control Language (JCL) added parameters for every possible option, making it incomprehensible to the average user. The memory-management routines were hampered by the architecture.

 Although a base-register addressing mode was used, the program could access and modify the base register, so that absolute addresses were generated by the CPU. This arrangement prevented dynamic relocation; the program was bound to physical memory at load time. Two separate versions of the operating system were produced: OS/MPT used fixed regions and OS/MVT used variable regions.

The system was written in assembly language by thousands of programmers, resulting in millions of lines of code. The operating system itself required large amounts of memory for its code and tables. Operating-system overhead often consumed one-half of the total CPU cycles. Over the years, new versions were released to add new features and to fix errors. However, fixing one error often caused another in some remote part of the system, so that the number of known errors in the system remained fairly constant.

 Virtual memory was added to OS/360 with the change to the IBM 370 architecture. The underlying hardware provided a segmented-paged virtual memory. New versions of OS used this hardware in different ways. OS/VS1 created one large virtual address space and ran OS/MFT in that virtual memory. Thus, the operating system itself was paged, as well as user programs. OS/VS2 23.9 Mach 851 Release 1 ran OS/MVT in virtual memory.

Topics You May Be Interested In
Operating System Concepts ( Multi Tasking, Multi Programming, Multi-user, Multi-threading ) Kernel Modules
Time Sharing Operating Systems Robustness
Real Time Operating System Design Issues
Operating System Operations- Dual-mode Operation, Timer An Example: Networking
Allocating Kernel Memory Implementing Real-time Operating Systems

 Finally, OS/VS2 Release 2, which is now called MVS, pro\r ided each user with his own virtual memory. MVS is still basically a batch operating system. The CTSS system was run on an IBM 7094, but MIT decided that the address space of the 360, IBM's successor to the 7094, was too small for MULTICS, so they switched vendors. IBM then decided to create its own time-sharing system, TSS/360 (Lett and Konigsford [1968]). Like MULTICS, TSS/360 was supposed to be a large, time-shared utility. The basic 360 architecture was modified in the model 67 to provide virtual memory. Several sites purchased the 360/67 in anticipation of TSS/360. TSS/360 was delayed, however, so other time-sharing systems were developed as temporary systems until TSS/360 was available.

A time-sharing option (TSO) was added to OS/360. IBM's Cambridge Scientific Center developed CMS as a single-user system and CP/67 to provide a virtual machine to run it on (Meyer and Seawright [1970], Parmelee et al. [1972]). When TSS/360 was eventually delivered, it was a failure. It was too large and too slow. As a result, no site would switch from its temporary system to TSS/360. Today, time sharing on IBM systems is largely provided either by TSO under MVS or by CMS under CP/67 (renamed VM). Both TSS/360 and MULTICS did not achieve commercial success.

What went wrong with these systems? Part of the problem was that these advanced systems were too large and too complex to be understood. Another problem was the assumption that computing power would be available from a large, remote computer. It now appears that most computing will be done by small individual machines—personal computers—not by large, remote, time-shared systems that try to be all things to all users.



Frequently Asked Questions

+
Ans: MULTICS The MULTICS operating system (Corbato and Vyssotsky [1965], Organick [1972]) was designed at MIT as a natural extension of CTSS. CTSS and other early time-sharing systems were so successful that they created an immediate desire to proceed quickly to bigger and better systems. As larger computers became available, the designers of CTSS set out to create a time-sharing utility. Computing service would be provided like electrical power. Large computer systems would be connected by telephone wires to terminals in offices and homes throughout a city. The operating system would be a time-shared system running continuously with a vast file system of shared programs and data. view more..
+
Ans: CTSS The Compatible Time-Sharing System (CTSS) (Corbato et al. [1962]) was designed at MIT as an experimental time-sharing system. It was implemented on an IBM 7090 and eventually supported up to 32 interactive users. The users were provided with a set of interactive commands that allowed them to manipulate files and to compile and run programs through a terminal. view more..
+
Ans: Network Management Perhaps the foremost QoS issue with multimedia systems concerns preserving rate requirements. For example, if a client wishes to view a video compressed with MPEG-1, the quality of service greatly depends on the system's ability to deliver the frames at the required rate.. Our coverage of issues such as CPU- and disk-scheduling algorithms has focused on how these techniques can be used to better meet the quality-ofservice requirements of multimedia applications. However, if the media file is being streamed over a network—perhaps the Internet—issues relating to how the network delivers the multimedia data can also significantly affect how QoS demands are met. In this section, we explore several network issues related to the unique demands of continuous media. Before we proceed, it is worth noting that computer networks in general —and the Internet in particular— currently do not provide network protocols that can ensure the delivery of data with timing requirements. (There are some proprietary protocols—notably those running on Cisco routers—that do allow certain network traffic to be prioritized to meet QoS requirements. view more..
+
Ans: IBM OS/360 The longest line of operating-system development is undoubtedly that of IBM computers. The early IBM computers, such as the IBM 7090 and the IBM 7094, are prime examples of the development of common I/O subroutines, followed by development of a resident monitor, privileged instructions, memory protection, and simple batch processing. These systems were developed separately, often by each site independently. As a result, IBM was faced with many different computers, with different languages and different system software. view more..
+
Ans: Mach The Mach operating system traces its ancestry to the Accent operating system developed at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) (Rashid and Robertson [1981]). Mach's communication system and philosophy are derived from Accent, but many other significant portions of the system (for example, the virtual memory system, task and thread management) were developed from scratch (Rashid [1986], Tevanian et al. [1989], and Accetta et al. [1986]). The Mach scheduler was described in detail by Tevanian et al. [1987a] and Black [1990]. view more..
+
Ans: History In the mid-1980s, Microsoft and IBM cooperated to develop the OS/2 operating system, which was written in assembly language for single-processor Intel 80286 systems. In 1988, Microsoft decided to make a fresh start and to develop a "new technology" (or NT) portable operating system that supported both the OS/2 and POSIX application-programming interfaces (APIs). view more..
+
Ans: Access Matrix Our model of protection can be viewed abstractly as a matrix, called an access matrix. The rows of the access matrix represent domains, and the columns represent objects. Each entry in the matrix consists of a set of access rights. Because the column defines objects explicitly, we can omit the object name from the access right. The entry access(/,/) defines the set of operations that a process executing in domain Dj can invoke on object . view more..
+
Ans: Election Algorithms Many distributed algorithms employ a coordinator process that performs functions needed by the other processes in the system. These functions include enforcing mutual exclusion, maintaining a global wait-for graph for deadlock detection, replacing a lost token, and controlling an input or output device in the system. If the coordinator process fails due to the failure of the site at which it resides, the system can continue only by restarting a new copy of the coordinator on some other site. The algorithms that determine where a new copy of the coordinator should be restarted are called election algorithms. Election algorithms assume that a unique priority number is associated with each active process in the system. For ease of notation, we assume that the priority number of process P, is /. To simplify our discussion, we assume a one-to-one correspondence between processes and sites and thus refer to both as processes. view more..
+
Ans: Reaching Agreement For a system to be reliable, we need a mechanism that allows a set of processes to agree on a common value. Such an agreement may not take place, for several reasons. First, the communication medium may be faulty, resulting in lost or garbled messages. Second, the processes themselves may be faulty, resulting in unpredictable process behavior. The best we can hope for in this case is that processes fail in a clean way, stopping their execution without deviating from their normal execution pattern. In the worst case, processes may send garbled or incorrect messages to other processes or even collaborate with other failed processes in an attempt to destroy the integrity of the system. view more..
+
Ans: Atomicity We introduced the concept of an atomic transaction, which is a program unit that must be executed atomically. That is, either all the operations associated with it are executed to completion, or none are performed. When we are dealing with a distributed system, ensuring the atomicity of a transaction becomes much more complicated than in a centralized system. This difficulty occurs because several sites may be participating in the execution of a single transaction. The failure of one of these sites, or the failure of a communication link connecting the sites, may result in erroneous computations. Ensuring that the execution of transactions in the distributed system preserves atomicity is the function of the transaction coordinator. Each site has its own local transaction coordinator, which is responsible for coordinating the execution of all the transactions initiated at that site. view more..
+
Ans: Concurrency Control We move next to the issue of concurrency control. In this section, we show how certain of the concurrency-control schemes discussed in Chapter 6 can be modified for use in a distributed environment. The transaction manager of a distributed database system manages the execution of those transactions (or subtransactions) that access data stored in a local site. Each such transaction may be either a local transaction (that is, a transaction that executes only at that site) or part of a global transaction (that is, a transaction that executes at several sites). Each transaction manager is responsible for maintaining a log for recovery purposes and for participating in an appropriate concurrency-control scheme to coordinate the conciirrent execution of the transactions executing at that site. As we shall see, the concurrency schemes described in Chapter 6 need to be modified to accommodate the distribution of transactions. view more..
+
Ans: Features of Real-Time Kernels In this section, we discuss the features necessary for designing an operating system that supports real-time processes. Before we begin, though, let's consider what is typically not needed for a real-time system. We begin by examining several features provided in many of the operating systems discussed so far in this text, including Linux, UNIX, and the various versions of Windows. These systems typically provide support for the following: • A variety of peripheral devices such as graphical displays, CD, and DVD drives • Protection and security mechanisms • Multiple users Supporting these features often results in a sophisticated—and large—kernel. For example, Windows XP has over forty million lines of source code. view more..
+
Ans: Implementing Real-Time Operating Systems Keeping in mind the many possible variations, we now identify the features necessary for implementing a real-time operating system. This list is by no means absolute; some systems provide more features than we list below, while other systems provide fewer. • Preemptive, priority-based scheduling • Preemptive kernel • Minimized latency view more..
+
Ans: VxWorks 5.x In this section, we describe VxWorks, a popular real-time operating system providing hard real-time support. VxWorks, commercially developed by Wind River Systems, is widely used in automobiles, consumer and industrial devices, and networking equipment such as switches and routers. VxWorks is also used to control the two rovers—Spirit and Opportunity—that began exploring the planet Mars in 2004. The organization of VxWorks is shown in Figure 19.12. VxWorks is centered around the Wind microkernel. Recall from our discussion in Section 2.7.3 that microkernels are designed so that the operating-system kernel provides a bare minimum of features; additional utilities, such as networking, file systems, and graphics, are provided in libraries outside of the kernel. This approach offers many benefits, including minimizing the size of the kernel—a desirable feature for an embedded system requiring a small footprint view more..
+
Ans: Mutual Exclusion In this section, we present a number of different algorithms for implementing mutual exclusion in a distributed environment. We assume that the system consists of n processes, each of which resides at a different processor. To simplify our discussion, we assume that processes are numbered uniquely from 1 to n and that a one-to-one mapping exists between processes and processors (that is, each process has its own processor). view more..
+
Ans: Event Ordering In a centralized system, we can always determine the order in which two events occurred, since the system has a single common memory and clock. Many applications may require us to determine order. For example, in a resourceallocation scheme, we specify that a resource can be used only after the resource has been granted. A distributed system, however, has no common memory and no common clock. Therefore, it is sometimes impossible to say which of two events occurred first. The liappened-before relation is only a partial ordering of the events in distributed systems. Since the ability to define a total ordering is crucial in many applications, we present a distributed algorithm for exterding the happened-before relation to a consistent total ordering of all the events in the system. view more..
+
Ans: Types of System Calls System calls can be grouped roughly into five major categories: process control, file manipulation, device manipulation, information maintenance, and communications. In Sections 2.4.1 through 2.4.5, we discuss briefly the types of system calls that may be provided by an operating system. view more..
+
Ans: Overview of Mass-Storage Structure In this section we present a general overview of the physical structure of secondary and tertiary storage devices. view more..




Rating - 3/5
496 views

Advertisements