Scope and classification of metrics



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The scope of matrics :

Quantitative measure of degree to which a system, component or process possesses a given attribute
For ex. No. of errors found per person hours expended

  1. Cost and Effort Estimation : Boehm’s COCOMO model, Putnam’s SLIM Model & Albrecht’s function model.  
  2. Productivity model and measures : for accessing staff productivity  
    Productivity model and measures
  3. Data Collection: Quality of any measurement product is clearly depend on careful data collection. It is easier to say but difficult to done specially in case of large projects
  4. Quality models and Measures: Without quality, speed of production is meaningless. Eg. Boehm’s advanced COCOMO model.
    Quality models and Measures
  5. Reliability Models: Most quality models include reliability as a component factor, but the need to predict & measure reliability itself has led to a separate specialization in reliability modeling and predictions.
  6. Performance evaluation and models -Aspects of quality -Response time and completion rates -Performance specialists also investigate the internal workings of system including efficiency of algorithms.
  7. Structural and Complexity Metrics: Reliability & maintainability cannot be measured until some operational version of the code is available. We wish to predict which parts of the s/w system are likely to be less reliable, more difficult to test or required more maintenance than other even before the system is complete. We measure structural attributes of representation of s/w which are available without need for execution.
  8. Management by Metrics: Charts and graphs help the mgmt. to track the status project. Many organizations define a set of measurements & reporting methods to track the status of project.
  9. Evaluation of methods and tools: It is difficult to separate the claims from the reality. Organization performs experiments, case studies & administrator surveys to check whether a method or tool is likely to make a positive difference in their particular situations. These investigations cannot be done without careful, controlled measurement and analysis.
  10. Capability Maturity Assessment: In the 1980s, the US Soft Engg Inst (SEI) proposed a capability maturity model to develop the quality software for US government. Assessed many different attributes The resulting grade was reported as a scale, from “1” (adhoc) to “5” (development – continuous feedback) 

Metric Classification

  • Process Metrics
  • Product Metrics
  • Project Metrics
  1. Process Metrics
  • Process metrics are measures of the software development process, such as
  • Overall development time
  • Type of methodology used
  • Process metrics are collected across all projects and over long periods of time.
  • Their intent is to provide indicators that lead to long-term software process improvement.
  • To improve any process, the rational way is:
  • Measure Specific attributes of the process
  • Derive meaningful metrics from these attributes.
  • Use these metrics to provide indicators.
  • The indicators lead to a strategy for improvement.

Factors Affecting Software Quality

Factors Affecting Software Quality

How to Measure Effectiveness of a Software Process

  • We measure the effectiveness of a software process indirectly
  • We derive a set of metrics based on the outcomes that can be derived from the process.
  • Outcomes include
  • Errors uncovered before release of the software
  • Defects delivered to and reported by end-users
  • Work products delivered (productivity)
  • Human effort expended
  • Calendar time expended etc.
  • Conformance to schedule
  1. Project Metrics
  • Project Metrics are the measures of Software Project and are used to monitor and control the project. They enable a software project manager to:
  • Minimize the development time by making the adjustments necessary to avoid delays and potential problems and risks.
  • Assess product quality on an ongoing basis & modify the technical approach to improve quality.
  • Used in estimation techniques & other technical work.
  • Metrics collected from past projects are used as a basis from which effort and time estimates are made for current software project.
  • As a project proceeds, actual values of human effort & calendar time expended are compared to the original estimates.
  • This data is used by the project manager to monitor & control the project.
  • Product metrics are measures of the software product at any stage of its development, from requirements to installed system. Product metrics may measure:
  • the complexity of the software design
  • the size of the final program
  • the number of pages of documentation produced
  1. Product metrics
  • Product metrics are measures of the software product at any stage of its development, from requirements to installed system. Product metrics may measure:
  • the complexity of the software design
  • the size of the final program
  • the number of pages of documentation produced

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Rating - 3/5