Bernoulli's equation



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According to the continuity equation, the speed of fluid flow can vary along the paths of the fluid. The pressure can also vary; it depends on height as in the static situation (see Section 12.2), and it also depends on the speed of flow.

We can derive an important relationship called Bernoulli’s equation, which relates the pressure, flow speed, and height for flow of an ideal, incompressible fluid. Bernoulli’s equation is useful in analyzing many kinds of fluid flow. The dependence of pressure on speed follows from the continuity equation, Eq. (12.10). When an incompressible fluid flows along a flow tube with varying cross section, its speed must change, and so an element of fluid must have an acceleration. If the tube is horizontal, the force that causes this acceleration has to be applied by the surrounding fluid. This means that the pressure must be different in regions of different cross section; if it were the same everywhere, the net force on every fluid element would be zero. When a horizontal flow tube narrows and a fluid element speeds up, it must be moving toward a region of lower pressure in order to have a net forward force to accelerate it. If the elevation also changes, this causes an additional pressure difference.

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