# Computer Instructions

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The basic computer has three instruction code formats, as shown in Fig. 5-5. Each format has 16 bits. The operation code (opcode) part of the instruction contains three bits and the meaning of the remaining 13 bits depends on the operation code encountered. A memory-reference instruction uses 12 bits to specify an address and one bit to specify the addressing mode I. I is equal to 0 for direct address and to 1 for indirect address (see Fig. 5-2}. The registerreference instructions are recognized by the operation code Ill with a 0 in the leftmost bit (bit 15) of the instruction. A register-reference instruction specifies an operation on or a test of the AC register. An operand from memory is not needed; therefore, the other 12 bits are used to specify the operation or test to be executed. Similarly, an input-output instruction does not need a reference to memory and is recognized by the operation code Ill with a 1 in the leftmost bit of the instruction. The remaining 12 bits are used to specify the type of input-output operation or test performed.

The type of instruction is recognized by the computer control from the four bits in positions 12 through 15 of the instruction. If the three opcode bits in positions 12 though 14 are not equal to Ill, the instruction is a memory-reference type and the bit in position 15 is taken as the addressing mode I. If the 3-bit opcode is equal to Ill, control then inspects the bit in position 15. If this bit is 0, the instruction is a register-reference type. If the bit is 1, the instruction is an input-output type. Note that the bit in position 15 of the instruction code is designated by the symbol I but is not used as a mode bit when the operation code is equal to 111.

Only three bits of the instruction are used for the operation code. It may seem that the computer is restricted to a maximum of eight distinct operations. However, since register-reference and input-output instructions use the remaining 12 bits as part of the operation code, the total number of instructions can exceed eight. In fact, the total number of instructions chosen for the basic computet ·ls equa'\ 'to 25.

The instructions for the computer are listed in Table 5-2. The symbol designation is a three-letter word and represents an abbreviation intended for programmers and users. The hexadecimal code is equal to the equivalent hexadecimal number of the binary code used for the instruction. By using the hexadecimal equivalent we reduced the 16 bits of an instruction code to four digits with each hexadecimal digit being equivalent to four bits. A memory-reference instruction has an address part of 12 bits. The address part is denoted by three x's and stand for the three hexadecimal digits corresponding to the 12-bit address. The last bit of the instruction is designated by the symbol I. When I = 0, the last four bits of an instruction have a hexadecimal digit equivalent from 0 to 6 since the last bit is 0. When I = I, the hexadecimal digit equivalent of the last four bits of the instruction ranges from 8 to E since the last bit is I.

Register-reference instructions use 16 bits to specify an operation. The leftmost four bits are always 0111, which is equivalent to hexadecimal 7. The other three hexadecimal digits give the binary equivalent of the remaining 12 bits. The input-output instructions also use all 16 bits to specify an operation. The last four bits are always 1111, equivalent to hexadecimal F.

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