Instruction Cycle



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A program residing in the memory unit of the computer consists of a sequence of instructions. The program is executed in the computer by going through a cycle for each instruction. Each instruction cycle in turn is subdivided into a sequence of subcycles or phases. In the basic computer each instruction cycle consists of the following phases:

1. Fetch an instruction from memory.

2. Decode the instruction.

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3. Read the effective address from memory if the instruction has an indirect address.

4. Execute the instruction.

Upon the completion of step 4, the control goes back to step 1 to fetch, decode, and execute the next instruction. This process continues indefinitely unless a HALT instruction is encountered.

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