Is Matter Around Us Pure ?



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Colloidal solution:

It is a heterogeneous mixture in which particles do not settle at the bottom. For eg :- salt and water

(salt solution)

Tyndall effect

Scattering of light after passing through the colloidal solution . For e.g. : - light passes through milk . it show blue in colour.
There are two components of colloidal solution :-

  1. Dispersed phase
  2. Dispersed median

Dispersed phase : - The particles of colloidal solution are suspended in median is known as dispersed phase
Dispersed median : - The components in which dispersed phase is suspended is known as dispersed median
 

Differentiate between sol , suspension and colloidal solution ?

  • sol
  1. It is a homogenous mixture .
  2. It is very stable.
  3. The size of particles are less than 1nm .
  4. It do not show tyndall effect.
  5. It cannot be separated by filtration
  • Colloidal solution
  1. Colloidal solution is a heterogeneous mixture
  2. It is quite stable.
  3. The size of particles are between 1nm – 1000nm.
  4. It show the tyndall effect.
  5. It cannot be separated by filtration
  • Suspension
  1. It is a heterogeneous mixture.
  2. It is unstable.1
  3. The size of particles are more than 1000nm.
  4. It can be separated by filtration.
  1. Separation of colour from the mixture.

Separation of colour components from the ink :-

  • Colour components Dyes
  • Volatile components : - The components which can be evaporated.
  • Non-Volatile components : - The components which cannot be evaporated.
  • We can separate volatile components from the non - volatile components by simple evaporation.
  1. Separation of colours from the black ink.

Black ink is the mixture of several colours. we can separate these colour from the process called chromatography. It is the technique from which we can separate the colour from the mixture of colour in which soluble is the same solvent.
Principle of Chromatography: - The colour which are more soluble gets rises faster.

Applications of Chromatography:-

  • We can separate colours from the dye.
  • Pigments from the natural colours.
  • Drugs from the Blood.
  1. Separation of cream from the milk

We can separate the cream from the milk by process called centrifugation.

Centrifugation :- it is the process separation of components of mixture by the process called centrifugation.
Principal of centrifugation :- it is based on the principal that the denser particles are forced to move downwards and the lighter particles are move upwards.
Applications of centrifugation :- it is used in laboratories for blood and urine test . it also used in homes and dairies to separate butter from the milk and also used in washing machine to squeeze water from the wet clothes.

  1. Separation of two immiscible liquids

Immiscible Liquids :- Immiscible Liquids are those liquids which do not dissolve to each other. It can be separate by separating funnel. It is based on the principal that two liquids are separate depending on outer layer separation.

  1. Separation of salt and ammonium chloride

Ammonium chloride is a sublimable substance.
Sublimable substance :- Sublimable substances are those substances which can be convert directly from solid to gas or vice-versa.
Since NH4CL is a sublimable substances . therefore , we can separate sublimable substances from Non-sublimable substances by simple heating.

  1. Separation of two miscible liquids

There two types of separating miscible liquids

  • Simple Distillations
  • Fractional Distillations
  1. Simple Distillations

There is a separation of two miscible liquids in which there is only a difference of boiling point liquid.

Example :- Acetone and water.

Acetone has boiling point of 58`c and water has 100`c

  1. Fractional Distillation

There is separation of two miscible liquids in which there is a difference of less than 25k.

Example :- Methanol and Ethanol

Methanol has a boiling point of 68`c and Ethanol has a 78`c

Differentiate between Physical and Chemical changes?

Physical changes

  1. There is no new substance are formed.
  2. It is reversible changes.
  3. Ex- tearing of paper and cutting trees

Chemical changes

  1. There is new substance are formed.
  2. It is irreversible changes.
  3. Ex- burning of trees and butter from cream.

Crystallisation

Crystallisation is a process to purify solids. For ex salt from sea water can have many impurities. To remove these impurities , The crystallisation process is used to purify solids in the of crystals in a solution. That is why crystallisation process is better than evaporations

Applications of Crystallisations

  1. Purifications of salt from sea water.
  2. Separation of alum (phitkari) in the form of crystals.

Compounds

A compound is a mixture that is formed when two or more atoms join together chemically.


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