2’s complement A number formed by adding 1 to the 1’s compliment of a number. The 2’s complement representation has become the standard method of storing signed binary integers. It allows the representation of an n-bit number in the range – 2n to 2n-1, and has the significant advantage of only h...

## LOADER

Loading is the process of bringing a program from secondary memory into main memory so it can run. The system software responsible for it is known as loader. The simplest type of loader is absolute loader which places the program into memory at the location prescribed by the assembler. Bootstrap...

## SEMANTIC ANALYSIS

Semantic analysis :The semantics of a statement in a programming language define what will happen when that statement is executed. Semantic rules assign meanings to valid statements of the language. In the semantic analysis phase, the parsed statements are analysed further to make sure that the...

## Exclusive-NOR or XNOR Gate

The Exclusive-NOR gate is a XOR gate followed by a NOT gate. XNOR gate is a two-input and one-output logic gate circuit. In the gate, the output is HIGH if both inputs are either LOW or HIGH

## BOOLEAN EXPRESSION

A Boolean or logic expression is a logic variable or a number of logic variables involved with one another through the logical operations ‘.’, ‘+’, and ‘–’.

## COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS AND PROGRAMMING IN C

C stands out among general-purpose programming languages for its unrivaled mix of portability,power,flexibility and elegance.The language has block structures,stand-alone functions,a compact set of keywords,and very few restrictions.

## Base Of A Number System

The base, or radix, of any number system is determined by the number of digit symbols in the system.

## Introduction To Operating System

An operating system may be defined as a system software which acts as an intermediary between the user and the hardware.

## Generations Of Computers

With advancement in the generation, the performance of computers improved .

## Evolution Of The Computer- A Brief History

The concept of calculating machines evolved long before the invention of electrical and electronic devices , mechanical and mechanical devices.

## What is a Computer ?

A computer is a data processor. It can accept input, which may be either data or instructions or both. The computer remembers the input by storing it in memory cells. It then processes the stored input by performing calculations or by making logical comparisons or both.

## MICROPROCESSOR

A microprocessor is an integrated circuit chip that contains all of the essential components for the central processing unit (CPU) of a microcomputer system.

## Binary number

A binary number is made of 0s and 1s. In the binary number system only two symbols, 0 and 1, are used to represent numeric values. The symbol “0“ represents the value “zero” while the symbol “1” represents the value “one”. Since there are only two symbols in the binary number system, the value “...

## Number system,base and symbols

Table 2.1 Number systems, bases, and symbols Number system Base Digital symbols Binary 2 0, 1 Ternary 3 0, 1, 2 Quaternary 4 0, 1, 2, 3 Quinary 5 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 Octal 8 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Decimal 10 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 Duodecimal 12 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B Hexadecimal...

## Introduction to Number Systems

A number system defines a set of values used to represent quantity. For example, the number of mobile phones kept in a shop, the number of persons standing in a queue, and the number of students attending a class.

## COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS AND PROGRAMMING IN C

Supercomputer is the most expensive and fastest type of computer that performs at or near the currently highest operational rate for computers. A Cray supercomputer is a typical example. These are employed for specialized applications that require immense amounts of mathematical calculations su...

## COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS AND PROGRAMMING IN C

Most designs of computers today are based on concepts developed by John von Neumann and are referred to as the von Neumann architecture. Computers can be classified in variety of ways on the basis of various parameters such as usage, cost, size, processing power, and so on. The classification of...

## COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS AND PROGRAMMING IN C

A computer is 'an automatic electronic apparatus for making calculations or controlling operations that are expressible in numerical or logical terms'.

## Decimal Number System [Base-10]

Most people today use decimal representation to count. This number system uses TEN different symbols to represent values. In the decimal system there are 10 digit symbols 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 with 0 having the least value and 9 having the greatest value. For a number represented in ...