A programming language can be defined formally as an artificial formalism in which algorithms can be expressed. It is composed of a set of instructions in a language understandable to the programmer and recognizable by a computer. Computer languages have been continuing to grow and evolve since ...

## What is a Computer ?

A computer is a data processor. It can accept input, which may be either data or instructions or both. The computer remembers the input by storing it in memory cells. It then processes the stored input by performing calculations or by making logical comparisons or both.

## Operational Overview Of CPU

The processing required for a single instruction is called an instruction cycle.

## TWO'S COMPLIMENT

2’s complement A number formed by adding 1 to the 1’s compliment of a number. The 2’s complement representation has become the standard method of storing signed binary integers. It allows the representation of an n-bit number in the range – 2n to 2n-1, and has the significant advantage of only h...

Intermediate code generation and optimization To make the target program a bit smaller or faster or both, many compilers produce an intermediate form of code for optimization. In most cases, the intermediate code is generated in assembly language or in a different language at a level between as...

## MICROPROCESSOR

A microprocessor is an integrated circuit chip that contains all of the essential components for the central processing unit (CPU) of a microcomputer system.

## LEXICAL ANALYSIS

Lexical analysis In this phase, the source program is scanned for lexical units (known as tokens) namely, identifier, operator delimiter, etc. and classify them according to their types. A table, called symbol table, is constructed to record the type and attributes information of each user-defin...

To convert from decimal whole numbers to octal, the systematic approach called the repeated-division-by-8 method is used. This method is explained by the following Converting (359)10 to octal. (a) Divide the decimal number by eight and obtain a quotient and a remainder. (b) Divide the quotien...

## Exclusive-OR or XOR Gate

The Exclusive-OR or XOR gate is a two-input circuit that will give a HIGH output if either, but not both, of the inputs are HIGH. The XOR function is an interesting and useful variation of the basic OR function. Its function can be stated as ‘Either A or B, but not both’. The XOR gate produces a...

## Anatomy Of A Computer

A computer can accept input, process or store data, and produce output according to a set of instructions which are fed into it.

To express the value of a given octal number as its decimal equivalent, add the octal digits after each digit has been multiplied by its associated weight.

## Introduction To Number System

A number system defines a set of values used to represent quantity.

## SYNTAX ANALYSIS

Syntax analysis In this phase, tokens are conflated into syntactic units such as expressions, statements, etc. that must conform to the syntax rules of the programming language. This process is known as parsing. Syntax is similar to the grammar of a language. Syntax rules specify the way in which...

## NOT GATE

NOT GATE also called INVERTER.The inverter is a little different from AND and OR gates as it has only one input and one output. Whatever logic state is applied to the input, the opposite state will appear at the output. The NOT function is denoted by a horizontal bar over the value to be invert...

## Evolution Of The Computer- A Brief History

The concept of calculating machines evolved long before the invention of electrical and electronic devices , mechanical and mechanical devices.

## SEMANTIC ANALYSIS

Semantic analysis :The semantics of a statement in a programming language define what will happen when that statement is executed. Semantic rules assign meanings to valid statements of the language. In the semantic analysis phase, the parsed statements are analysed further to make sure that the...

## Number system,base and symbols

Table 2.1 Number systems, bases, and symbols Number system Base Digital symbols Binary 2 0, 1 Ternary 3 0, 1, 2 Quaternary 4 0, 1, 2, 3 Quinary 5 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 Octal 8 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Decimal 10 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 Duodecimal 12 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B Hexadecimal...

## COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS AND PROGRAMMING IN C

C stands out among general-purpose programming languages for its unrivaled mix of portability,power,flexibility and elegance.The language has block structures,stand-alone functions,a compact set of keywords,and very few restrictions.

## What is a bit

The abbreviated form of “ bi-nary dig-it ” is known as bit. When a “bit” is mentioned, it means a single binary digit, which may either be a “0” or “1”, is referred to.