A computer can accept input, process or store data, and produce output according to a set of instructions which are fed into it.

## Generations Of Computers

With advancement in the generation, the performance of computers improved .

## Operational Overview Of CPU

The processing required for a single instruction is called an instruction cycle.

## Base Of a Number

The base, or radix, of any number system is determined by the number of digit symbols in the system. For example, binary is a base-2 number system since it uses two symbols and decimal is a base-10 system since it uses ten symbols.

## Memory Revisited

There are different types of memories with particular functions.

## COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS AND PROGRAMMING IN C

Most designs of computers today are based on concepts developed by John von Neumann and are referred to as the von Neumann architecture. Computers can be classified in variety of ways on the basis of various parameters such as usage, cost, size, processing power, and so on. The classification of...

## SEMANTIC ANALYSIS

Semantic analysis :The semantics of a statement in a programming language define what will happen when that statement is executed. Semantic rules assign meanings to valid statements of the language. In the semantic analysis phase, the parsed statements are analysed further to make sure that the...

## What is a Computer ?

A computer is a data processor. It can accept input, which may be either data or instructions or both. The computer remembers the input by storing it in memory cells. It then processes the stored input by performing calculations or by making logical comparisons or both.

## Base Of A Number System

The base, or radix, of any number system is determined by the number of digit symbols in the system.

## SYNTAX ANALYSIS

Syntax analysis In this phase, tokens are conflated into syntactic units such as expressions, statements, etc. that must conform to the syntax rules of the programming language. This process is known as parsing. Syntax is similar to the grammar of a language. Syntax rules specify the way in which...

## 1'S COMPLIMENT

1’s complement A number system that was used in some computers to represent negative numbers. To form 1s complement of a number, each bit of the number is inverted which means zeros are replaced with ones and ones with zero.

## Introduction To Number System

A number system defines a set of values used to represent quantity.

## Introduction to Number Systems

A number system defines a set of values used to represent quantity. For example, the number of mobile phones kept in a shop, the number of persons standing in a queue, and the number of students attending a class.

## LINKER

Most of the high-level languages provide libraries of subroutines or functions so that certain common operations may be reused by system-supplied routines without explicit coding. Hence, the machine language program produced by the translator must normally be combined with other machine languag...

## Evolution Of The Computer- A Brief History

The concept of calculating machines evolved long before the invention of electrical and electronic devices , mechanical and mechanical devices.

## COMPILING, LINKING, AND LOADING A PROGRAM

A program, written in source language, is translated by the compiler to produce a program in a target language. The source language is usually a high-level language. The target language may or not necessarily be machine language. In most cases, the target language is assembly language, and in wh...

## Intermediate code generation and optimization

Intermediate code generation and optimization To make the target program a bit smaller or faster or both, many compilers produce an intermediate form of code for optimization. In most cases, the intermediate code is generated in assembly language or in a different language at a level between as...

## Number system,base and symbols

Table 2.1 Number systems, bases, and symbols Number system Base Digital symbols Binary 2 0, 1 Ternary 3 0, 1, 2 Quaternary 4 0, 1, 2, 3 Quinary 5 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 Octal 8 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Decimal 10 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 Duodecimal 12 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B Hexadecimal...

## COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS AND PROGRAMMING IN C

C stands out among general-purpose programming languages for its unrivaled mix of portability,power,flexibility and elegance.The language has block structures,stand-alone functions,a compact set of keywords,and very few restrictions.

## SECONDARY MEMORY

There are four main types of secondary storage devices available in a computer system: Disk drives CD drives (CD-R, CD-RW, and DVD) Tape drives USB flash drives

## TRANSLATORS

There are three types of translators, namely Assembler, Compiler and Interpreter. Assembler converts one assembly language statement into a single machine language instruction. . Depending on its implementation, a high-level language employs a compiler or an interpreter or both for translation. ...

## What is a bit

The abbreviated form of “ bi-nary dig-it ” is known as bit. When a “bit” is mentioned, it means a single binary digit, which may either be a “0” or “1”, is referred to.

To convert from decimal whole numbers to octal, the systematic approach called the repeated-division-by-8 method is used. This method is explained by the following Converting (359)10 to octal. (a) Divide the decimal number by eight and obtain a quotient and a remainder. (b) Divide the quotien...

## Binary number

A binary number is made of 0s and 1s. In the binary number system only two symbols, 0 and 1, are used to represent numeric values. The symbol “0“ represents the value “zero” while the symbol “1” represents the value “one”. Since there are only two symbols in the binary number system, the value “...

## TWO'S COMPLIMENT

2’s complement A number formed by adding 1 to the 1’s compliment of a number. The 2’s complement representation has become the standard method of storing signed binary integers. It allows the representation of an n-bit number in the range – 2n to 2n-1, and has the significant advantage of only h...

To express the value of a given octal number as its decimal equivalent, add the octal digits after each digit has been multiplied by its associated weight.

## Classification Of Computers

Computers can be classified in variety of ways on the basis of various parameters .

## COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS AND PROGRAMMING IN C

A computer is 'an automatic electronic apparatus for making calculations or controlling operations that are expressible in numerical or logical terms'.

## Introduction - What Is A Computer

The definition clearly categorizes a computer as an electronic apparatus.