A Boolean or logic expression is a logic variable or a number of logic variables involved with one another through the logical operations ‘.’, ‘+’, and ‘–’.

## Code generation

Code generation This is the final phase of a standard compilation which converts every statement of the optimized intermediate code into target code using predefined target language template. The target language template depends on the machine instructions of the processor, addressing modes and...

To convert a hexadecimal to decimal, begin by multiplying each of the hexadecimal digits by their positional weight values as expressed in decimal. Then the resulting values are added to obtain the value of the decimal number.

## Memory Revisited

There are different types of memories with particular functions.

## Decimal Number System [Base-10]

Most people today use decimal representation to count. This number system uses TEN different symbols to represent values. In the decimal system there are 10 digit symbols 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 with 0 having the least value and 9 having the greatest value. For a number represented in ...

## Introduction To Number System

A number system defines a set of values used to represent quantity.

## Base Of a Number

The base, or radix, of any number system is determined by the number of digit symbols in the system. For example, binary is a base-2 number system since it uses two symbols and decimal is a base-10 system since it uses ten symbols.

To convert from decimal whole numbers to octal, the systematic approach called the repeated-division-by-8 method is used. This method is explained by the following Converting (359)10 to octal. (a) Divide the decimal number by eight and obtain a quotient and a remainder. (b) Divide the quotien...

## COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS AND PROGRAMMING IN C

A computer is 'an automatic electronic apparatus for making calculations or controlling operations that are expressible in numerical or logical terms'.

## COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS AND PROGRAMMING IN C

C stands out among general-purpose programming languages for its unrivaled mix of portability,power,flexibility and elegance.The language has block structures,stand-alone functions,a compact set of keywords,and very few restrictions.

## Anatomy Of A Computer

A computer can accept input, process or store data, and produce output according to a set of instructions which are fed into it.

## Evolution Of The Computer- A Brief History

The concept of calculating machines evolved long before the invention of electrical and electronic devices , mechanical and mechanical devices.

## Introduction To Operating System

An operating system may be defined as a system software which acts as an intermediary between the user and the hardware.

## Primary Memory

All modern computers use semiconductor memory as primary memory. One of the important semiconductor memories used in desktop computers is Random Access Memory (RAM). Here “random access” means that any storage location can be accessed (both read and write) directly.

To express the value of a given octal number as its decimal equivalent, add the octal digits after each digit has been multiplied by its associated weight.

## Generations Of Computers

With advancement in the generation, the performance of computers improved .

## Mainframe Computer

A mainframe computer supports a vast number of users to work simultaneously and remotely. Apart from providing multi-user facility, it can process large amounts of data at very high speeds and support many input, output and auxiliary storage devices. These computers are very large in size, and ...

## Operational Overview Of CPU

The processing required for a single instruction is called an instruction cycle.

## What is a Computer ?

A computer is a data processor. It can accept input, which may be either data or instructions or both. The computer remembers the input by storing it in memory cells. It then processes the stored input by performing calculations or by making logical comparisons or both.

## Primary Memory

It is another type of memory that retains data and instructions stored in it even when the power is turned off. ROM is used in personal computers for storing start-up instructions provided by the manufacturer for carrying out basic operations such as bootstrapping in a PC, and is programmed ...

## Introduction to Number Systems

A number system defines a set of values used to represent quantity. For example, the number of mobile phones kept in a shop, the number of persons standing in a queue, and the number of students attending a class.

## MICROPROCESSOR

A microprocessor is an integrated circuit chip that contains all of the essential components for the central processing unit (CPU) of a microcomputer system.

## ONE'S COMPLIMENT

1’s complement A number system that was used in some computers to represent negative numbers. To form 1s complement of a number, each bit of the number is inverted which means zeros are replaced with ones and ones with zero.

## COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS AND PROGRAMMING IN C

Supercomputer is the most expensive and fastest type of computer that performs at or near the currently highest operational rate for computers. A Cray supercomputer is a typical example. These are employed for specialized applications that require immense amounts of mathematical calculations su...

## COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS AND PROGRAMMING IN C

Most designs of computers today are based on concepts developed by John von Neumann and are referred to as the von Neumann architecture. Computers can be classified in variety of ways on the basis of various parameters such as usage, cost, size, processing power, and so on. The classification of...

## 1'S COMPLIMENT

1’s complement A number system that was used in some computers to represent negative numbers. To form 1s complement of a number, each bit of the number is inverted which means zeros are replaced with ones and ones with zero.

## Classification Of Computers

Computers can be classified in variety of ways on the basis of various parameters .

## SECONDARY MEMORY

There are four main types of secondary storage devices available in a computer system: Disk drives CD drives (CD-R, CD-RW, and DVD) Tape drives USB flash drives

## Base Of A Number System

The base, or radix, of any number system is determined by the number of digit symbols in the system.

## CACHE MEMORY

Cache memory It is a special high-speed memory that allows a microprocessor to access data more rapidly than from memory located elsewhere on the system board.