The definition clearly categorizes a computer as an electronic apparatus.

## What is a bit

The abbreviated form of “ bi-nary dig-it ” is known as bit. When a “bit” is mentioned, it means a single binary digit, which may either be a “0” or “1”, is referred to.

## Memory Revisited

There are different types of memories with particular functions.

## Number system,base and symbols

Table 2.1 Number systems, bases, and symbols Number system Base Digital symbols Binary 2 0, 1 Ternary 3 0, 1, 2 Quaternary 4 0, 1, 2, 3 Quinary 5 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 Octal 8 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Decimal 10 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 Duodecimal 12 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B Hexadecimal...

## COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS AND PROGRAMMING IN C

C stands out among general-purpose programming languages for its unrivaled mix of portability,power,flexibility and elegance.The language has block structures,stand-alone functions,a compact set of keywords,and very few restrictions.

## Exclusive-OR or XOR Gate

The Exclusive-OR or XOR gate is a two-input circuit that will give a HIGH output if either, but not both, of the inputs are HIGH. The XOR function is an interesting and useful variation of the basic OR function. Its function can be stated as ‘Either A or B, but not both’. The XOR gate produces a...

## Generations Of Computers

With advancement in the generation, the performance of computers improved .

## Binary number

A binary number is made of 0s and 1s. In the binary number system only two symbols, 0 and 1, are used to represent numeric values. The symbol “0“ represents the value “zero” while the symbol “1” represents the value “one”. Since there are only two symbols in the binary number system, the value “...

To convert from decimal whole numbers to octal, the systematic approach called the repeated-division-by-8 method is used. This method is explained by the following Converting (359)10 to octal. (a) Divide the decimal number by eight and obtain a quotient and a remainder. (b) Divide the quotien...

## Introduction To Number System

A number system defines a set of values used to represent quantity.

## Evolution Of The Computer- A Brief History

The concept of calculating machines evolved long before the invention of electrical and electronic devices , mechanical and mechanical devices.

## ONE'S COMPLIMENT

1’s complement A number system that was used in some computers to represent negative numbers. To form 1s complement of a number, each bit of the number is inverted which means zeros are replaced with ones and ones with zero.

## Anatomy Of A Computer

A computer can accept input, process or store data, and produce output according to a set of instructions which are fed into it.

## Code generation

Code generation This is the final phase of a standard compilation which converts every statement of the optimized intermediate code into target code using predefined target language template. The target language template depends on the machine instructions of the processor, addressing modes and...

## SEMANTIC ANALYSIS

Semantic analysis :The semantics of a statement in a programming language define what will happen when that statement is executed. Semantic rules assign meanings to valid statements of the language. In the semantic analysis phase, the parsed statements are analysed further to make sure that the...

## Base Of a Number

The base, or radix, of any number system is determined by the number of digit symbols in the system. For example, binary is a base-2 number system since it uses two symbols and decimal is a base-10 system since it uses ten symbols.

## Operational Overview Of CPU

The processing required for a single instruction is called an instruction cycle.

To express the value of a given octal number as its decimal equivalent, add the octal digits after each digit has been multiplied by its associated weight.

## Introduction To Operating System

An operating system may be defined as a system software which acts as an intermediary between the user and the hardware.

## BOOLEAN EXPRESSION

A Boolean or logic expression is a logic variable or a number of logic variables involved with one another through the logical operations ‘.’, ‘+’, and ‘–’.

## Introduction to Number Systems

A number system defines a set of values used to represent quantity. For example, the number of mobile phones kept in a shop, the number of persons standing in a queue, and the number of students attending a class.

## PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES

A programming language can be defined formally as an artificial formalism in which algorithms can be expressed. It is composed of a set of instructions in a language understandable to the programmer and recognizable by a computer. Computer languages have been continuing to grow and evolve since ...

## Classification Of Computers

Computers can be classified in variety of ways on the basis of various parameters .

## What is a Computer ?

A computer is a data processor. It can accept input, which may be either data or instructions or both. The computer remembers the input by storing it in memory cells. It then processes the stored input by performing calculations or by making logical comparisons or both.

## LINKER

Most of the high-level languages provide libraries of subroutines or functions so that certain common operations may be reused by system-supplied routines without explicit coding. Hence, the machine language program produced by the translator must normally be combined with other machine languag...

## Base Of A Number System

The base, or radix, of any number system is determined by the number of digit symbols in the system.

## LOADER

Loading is the process of bringing a program from secondary memory into main memory so it can run. The system software responsible for it is known as loader. The simplest type of loader is absolute loader which places the program into memory at the location prescribed by the assembler. Bootstrap...

## Exclusive-NOR or XNOR Gate

The Exclusive-NOR gate is a XOR gate followed by a NOT gate. XNOR gate is a two-input and one-output logic gate circuit. In the gate, the output is HIGH if both inputs are either LOW or HIGH