To convert a hexadecimal to decimal, begin by multiplying each of the hexadecimal digits by their positional weight values as expressed in decimal. Then the resulting values are added to obtain the value of the decimal number.

## Anatomy Of A Computer

A computer can accept input, process or store data, and produce output according to a set of instructions which are fed into it.

## Operational Overview Of CPU

The processing required for a single instruction is called an instruction cycle.

## What is a Computer ?

A computer is a data processor. It can accept input, which may be either data or instructions or both. The computer remembers the input by storing it in memory cells. It then processes the stored input by performing calculations or by making logical comparisons or both.

## LOADER

Loading is the process of bringing a program from secondary memory into main memory so it can run. The system software responsible for it is known as loader. The simplest type of loader is absolute loader which places the program into memory at the location prescribed by the assembler. Bootstrap...

## Classification Of Computers

Computers can be classified in variety of ways on the basis of various parameters .

## Exclusive-OR or XOR Gate

The Exclusive-OR or XOR gate is a two-input circuit that will give a HIGH output if either, but not both, of the inputs are HIGH. The XOR function is an interesting and useful variation of the basic OR function. Its function can be stated as ‘Either A or B, but not both’. The XOR gate produces a...

## MICROPROCESSOR

A microprocessor is an integrated circuit chip that contains all of the essential components for the central processing unit (CPU) of a microcomputer system.

## Number system,base and symbols

Table 2.1 Number systems, bases, and symbols Number system Base Digital symbols Binary 2 0, 1 Ternary 3 0, 1, 2 Quaternary 4 0, 1, 2, 3 Quinary 5 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 Octal 8 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Decimal 10 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 Duodecimal 12 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B Hexadecimal...

## 1'S COMPLIMENT

1’s complement A number system that was used in some computers to represent negative numbers. To form 1s complement of a number, each bit of the number is inverted which means zeros are replaced with ones and ones with zero.

## Code generation

Code generation This is the final phase of a standard compilation which converts every statement of the optimized intermediate code into target code using predefined target language template. The target language template depends on the machine instructions of the processor, addressing modes and...

## SEMANTIC ANALYSIS

Semantic analysis :The semantics of a statement in a programming language define what will happen when that statement is executed. Semantic rules assign meanings to valid statements of the language. In the semantic analysis phase, the parsed statements are analysed further to make sure that the...

## COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS AND PROGRAMMING IN C

Most designs of computers today are based on concepts developed by John von Neumann and are referred to as the von Neumann architecture. Computers can be classified in variety of ways on the basis of various parameters such as usage, cost, size, processing power, and so on. The classification of...

## Introduction To Number System

A number system defines a set of values used to represent quantity.

## Memory Revisited

There are different types of memories with particular functions.

## Decimal Number System [Base-10]

Most people today use decimal representation to count. This number system uses TEN different symbols to represent values. In the decimal system there are 10 digit symbols 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 with 0 having the least value and 9 having the greatest value. For a number represented in ...

## Introduction To Operating System

An operating system may be defined as a system software which acts as an intermediary between the user and the hardware.

## Binary number

A binary number is made of 0s and 1s. In the binary number system only two symbols, 0 and 1, are used to represent numeric values. The symbol “0“ represents the value “zero” while the symbol “1” represents the value “one”. Since there are only two symbols in the binary number system, the value “...

## Primary Memory

All modern computers use semiconductor memory as primary memory. One of the important semiconductor memories used in desktop computers is Random Access Memory (RAM). Here “random access” means that any storage location can be accessed (both read and write) directly.

## Base Of a Number

The base, or radix, of any number system is determined by the number of digit symbols in the system. For example, binary is a base-2 number system since it uses two symbols and decimal is a base-10 system since it uses ten symbols.

## SECONDARY MEMORY

There are four main types of secondary storage devices available in a computer system: Disk drives CD drives (CD-R, CD-RW, and DVD) Tape drives USB flash drives

To express the value of a given octal number as its decimal equivalent, add the octal digits after each digit has been multiplied by its associated weight.

## SYNTAX ANALYSIS

Syntax analysis In this phase, tokens are conflated into syntactic units such as expressions, statements, etc. that must conform to the syntax rules of the programming language. This process is known as parsing. Syntax is similar to the grammar of a language. Syntax rules specify the way in which...

## Exclusive-NOR or XNOR Gate

The Exclusive-NOR gate is a XOR gate followed by a NOT gate. XNOR gate is a two-input and one-output logic gate circuit. In the gate, the output is HIGH if both inputs are either LOW or HIGH

## Introduction to Number Systems

A number system defines a set of values used to represent quantity. For example, the number of mobile phones kept in a shop, the number of persons standing in a queue, and the number of students attending a class.

## PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES

A programming language can be defined formally as an artificial formalism in which algorithms can be expressed. It is composed of a set of instructions in a language understandable to the programmer and recognizable by a computer. Computer languages have been continuing to grow and evolve since ...

## What is a bit

The abbreviated form of “ bi-nary dig-it ” is known as bit. When a “bit” is mentioned, it means a single binary digit, which may either be a “0” or “1”, is referred to.

## CACHE MEMORY

Cache memory It is a special high-speed memory that allows a microprocessor to access data more rapidly than from memory located elsewhere on the system board.