The base, or radix, of any number system is determined by the number of digit symbols in the system.

## CACHE MEMORY

Cache memory It is a special high-speed memory that allows a microprocessor to access data more rapidly than from memory located elsewhere on the system board.

## COMPILING, LINKING, AND LOADING A PROGRAM

A program, written in source language, is translated by the compiler to produce a program in a target language. The source language is usually a high-level language. The target language may or not necessarily be machine language. In most cases, the target language is assembly language, and in wh...

## ONE'S COMPLIMENT

1’s complement A number system that was used in some computers to represent negative numbers. To form 1s complement of a number, each bit of the number is inverted which means zeros are replaced with ones and ones with zero.

## BOOLEAN EXPRESSION

A Boolean or logic expression is a logic variable or a number of logic variables involved with one another through the logical operations ‘.’, ‘+’, and ‘–’.

## Introduction to Number Systems

A number system defines a set of values used to represent quantity. For example, the number of mobile phones kept in a shop, the number of persons standing in a queue, and the number of students attending a class.

## Mainframe Computer

A mainframe computer supports a vast number of users to work simultaneously and remotely. Apart from providing multi-user facility, it can process large amounts of data at very high speeds and support many input, output and auxiliary storage devices. These computers are very large in size, and ...

## COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS AND PROGRAMMING IN C

Most designs of computers today are based on concepts developed by John von Neumann and are referred to as the von Neumann architecture. Computers can be classified in variety of ways on the basis of various parameters such as usage, cost, size, processing power, and so on. The classification of...

## COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS AND PROGRAMMING IN C

A computer is 'an automatic electronic apparatus for making calculations or controlling operations that are expressible in numerical or logical terms'.

To convert a hexadecimal to decimal, begin by multiplying each of the hexadecimal digits by their positional weight values as expressed in decimal. Then the resulting values are added to obtain the value of the decimal number.

## Base Of a Number

The base, or radix, of any number system is determined by the number of digit symbols in the system. For example, binary is a base-2 number system since it uses two symbols and decimal is a base-10 system since it uses ten symbols.

## Binary number

A binary number is made of 0s and 1s. In the binary number system only two symbols, 0 and 1, are used to represent numeric values. The symbol “0“ represents the value “zero” while the symbol “1” represents the value “one”. Since there are only two symbols in the binary number system, the value “...

## LOADER

Loading is the process of bringing a program from secondary memory into main memory so it can run. The system software responsible for it is known as loader. The simplest type of loader is absolute loader which places the program into memory at the location prescribed by the assembler. Bootstrap...

## Decimal Number System [Base-10]

Most people today use decimal representation to count. This number system uses TEN different symbols to represent values. In the decimal system there are 10 digit symbols 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 with 0 having the least value and 9 having the greatest value. For a number represented in ...

## 1'S COMPLIMENT

1’s complement A number system that was used in some computers to represent negative numbers. To form 1s complement of a number, each bit of the number is inverted which means zeros are replaced with ones and ones with zero.

## Generations Of Computers

With advancement in the generation, the performance of computers improved .

## COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS AND PROGRAMMING IN C

Supercomputer is the most expensive and fastest type of computer that performs at or near the currently highest operational rate for computers. A Cray supercomputer is a typical example. These are employed for specialized applications that require immense amounts of mathematical calculations su...

## Code generation

Code generation This is the final phase of a standard compilation which converts every statement of the optimized intermediate code into target code using predefined target language template. The target language template depends on the machine instructions of the processor, addressing modes and...

## PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES

A programming language can be defined formally as an artificial formalism in which algorithms can be expressed. It is composed of a set of instructions in a language understandable to the programmer and recognizable by a computer. Computer languages have been continuing to grow and evolve since ...

## What is a Computer ?

A computer is a data processor. It can accept input, which may be either data or instructions or both. The computer remembers the input by storing it in memory cells. It then processes the stored input by performing calculations or by making logical comparisons or both.

## LINKER

Most of the high-level languages provide libraries of subroutines or functions so that certain common operations may be reused by system-supplied routines without explicit coding. Hence, the machine language program produced by the translator must normally be combined with other machine languag...

## Operational Overview Of CPU

The processing required for a single instruction is called an instruction cycle.

## TWO'S COMPLIMENT

2’s complement A number formed by adding 1 to the 1’s compliment of a number. The 2’s complement representation has become the standard method of storing signed binary integers. It allows the representation of an n-bit number in the range – 2n to 2n-1, and has the significant advantage of only h...

## TRANSLATORS

There are three types of translators, namely Assembler, Compiler and Interpreter. Assembler converts one assembly language statement into a single machine language instruction. . Depending on its implementation, a high-level language employs a compiler or an interpreter or both for translation. ...

Intermediate code generation and optimization To make the target program a bit smaller or faster or both, many compilers produce an intermediate form of code for optimization. In most cases, the intermediate code is generated in assembly language or in a different language at a level between as...

## Memory Revisited

There are different types of memories with particular functions.

## MICROPROCESSOR

A microprocessor is an integrated circuit chip that contains all of the essential components for the central processing unit (CPU) of a microcomputer system.

## LEXICAL ANALYSIS

Lexical analysis In this phase, the source program is scanned for lexical units (known as tokens) namely, identifier, operator delimiter, etc. and classify them according to their types. A table, called symbol table, is constructed to record the type and attributes information of each user-defin...

To convert from decimal whole numbers to octal, the systematic approach called the repeated-division-by-8 method is used. This method is explained by the following Converting (359)10 to octal. (a) Divide the decimal number by eight and obtain a quotient and a remainder. (b) Divide the quotien...

## Introduction To Operating System

An operating system may be defined as a system software which acts as an intermediary between the user and the hardware.