C stands out among general-purpose programming languages for its unrivaled mix of portability,power,flexibility and elegance.The language has block structures,stand-alone functions,a compact set of keywords,and very few restrictions.
The Exclusive-OR or XOR gate is a two-input circuit that will give a HIGH output if either, but not both, of the inputs are HIGH. The XOR function is an interesting and useful variation of the basic OR function. Its function can be stated as ‘Either A or B, but not both’. The XOR gate produces a...
The abbreviated form of “ bi-nary dig-it ” is known as bit. When a “bit” is mentioned, it means a single binary digit, which may either be a “0” or “1”, is referred to.
A microprocessor is an integrated circuit chip that contains all of the essential components for the central processing unit (CPU) of a microcomputer system.
2’s complement A number formed by adding 1 to the 1’s compliment of a number. The 2’s complement representation has become the standard method of storing signed binary integers. It allows the representation of an n-bit number in the range – 2n to 2n-1, and has the significant advantage of only h...
To express the value of a given octal number as its decimal equivalent, add the octal digits after each digit has been multiplied by its associated weight.
Semantic analysis :The semantics of a statement in a programming language define what will happen when that statement is executed. Semantic rules assign meanings to valid statements of the language. In the semantic analysis phase, the parsed statements are analysed further to make sure that the...
The Exclusive-NOR gate is a XOR gate followed by a NOT gate. XNOR gate is a two-input and one-output logic gate circuit. In the gate, the output is HIGH if both inputs are either LOW or HIGH
A computer can accept input, process or store data, and produce output according to a set of instructions which are fed into it.
NOT GATE also called INVERTER.The inverter is a little different from AND and OR gates as it has only one input and one output. Whatever logic state is applied to the input, the opposite state will appear at the output. The NOT function is denoted by a horizontal bar over the value to be invert...
1’s complement A number system that was used in some computers to represent negative numbers. To form 1s complement of a number, each bit of the number is inverted which means zeros are replaced with ones and ones with zero.
To convert a hexadecimal to decimal, begin by multiplying each of the hexadecimal digits by their positional weight values as expressed in decimal. Then the resulting values are added to obtain the value of the decimal number.
The AND gate is an electronic circuit that has two or more inputs and only one output. It gives a HIGH output (1) only if all its inputs are HIGH.
Table 2.1 Number systems, bases, and symbols Number system Base Digital symbols Binary 2 0, 1 Ternary 3 0, 1, 2 Quaternary 4 0, 1, 2, 3 Quinary 5 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 Octal 8 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Decimal 10 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 Duodecimal 12 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B Hexadecimal...
The concept of calculating machines evolved long before the invention of electrical and electronic devices , mechanical and mechanical devices.
With advancement in the generation, the performance of computers improved .
There are different types of memories with particular functions.
A Boolean or logic expression is a logic variable or a number of logic variables involved with one another through the logical operations ‘.’, ‘+’, and ‘–’.
Syntax analysis In this phase, tokens are conflated into syntactic units such as expressions, statements, etc. that must conform to the syntax rules of the programming language. This process is known as parsing. Syntax is similar to the grammar of a language. Syntax rules specify the way in which...
The processing required for a single instruction is called an instruction cycle.
The OR gate is an electronic circuit that has two or more inputs and only one output. It gives a HIGH output if one or more of its inputs are HIGH.
To convert from decimal whole numbers to octal, the systematic approach called the repeated-division-by-8 method is used. This method is explained by the following Converting (359)10 to octal. (a) Divide the decimal number by eight and obtain a quotient and a remainder. (b) Divide the quotien...
Most designs of computers today are based on concepts developed by John von Neumann and are referred to as the von Neumann architecture. Computers can be classified in variety of ways on the basis of various parameters such as usage, cost, size, processing power, and so on. The classification of...
All modern computers use semiconductor memory as primary memory. One of the important semiconductor memories used in desktop computers is Random Access Memory (RAM). Here “random access” means that any storage location can be accessed (both read and write) directly.
Intermediate code generation and optimization To make the target program a bit smaller or faster or both, many compilers produce an intermediate form of code for optimization. In most cases, the intermediate code is generated in assembly language or in a different language at a level between as...
The base, or radix, of any number system is determined by the number of digit symbols in the system.
A number system defines a set of values used to represent quantity.
A number system defines a set of values used to represent quantity. For example, the number of mobile phones kept in a shop, the number of persons standing in a queue, and the number of students attending a class.
Computers can be classified in variety of ways on the basis of various parameters .
A computer is a data processor. It can accept input, which may be either data or instructions or both. The computer remembers the input by storing it in memory cells. It then processes the stored input by performing calculations or by making logical comparisons or both.