A computer can accept input, process or store data, and produce output according to a set of instructions which are fed into it.

## Exclusive-NOR or XNOR Gate

The Exclusive-NOR gate is a XOR gate followed by a NOT gate. XNOR gate is a two-input and one-output logic gate circuit. In the gate, the output is HIGH if both inputs are either LOW or HIGH

## Operational Overview Of CPU

The processing required for a single instruction is called an instruction cycle.

## Classification Of Computers

Computers can be classified in variety of ways on the basis of various parameters .

## Introduction to Number Systems

A number system defines a set of values used to represent quantity. For example, the number of mobile phones kept in a shop, the number of persons standing in a queue, and the number of students attending a class.

## Memory Revisited

There are different types of memories with particular functions.

## Introduction - What Is A Computer

The definition clearly categorizes a computer as an electronic apparatus.

## BOOLEAN EXPRESSION

A Boolean or logic expression is a logic variable or a number of logic variables involved with one another through the logical operations ‘.’, ‘+’, and ‘–’.

## Generations Of Computers

With advancement in the generation, the performance of computers improved .

## Number system,base and symbols

Table 2.1 Number systems, bases, and symbols Number system Base Digital symbols Binary 2 0, 1 Ternary 3 0, 1, 2 Quaternary 4 0, 1, 2, 3 Quinary 5 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 Octal 8 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Decimal 10 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 Duodecimal 12 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B Hexadecimal...

## COMPILING, LINKING, AND LOADING A PROGRAM

A program, written in source language, is translated by the compiler to produce a program in a target language. The source language is usually a high-level language. The target language may or not necessarily be machine language. In most cases, the target language is assembly language, and in wh...

## Base Of A Number System

The base, or radix, of any number system is determined by the number of digit symbols in the system.

## Introduction To Number System

A number system defines a set of values used to represent quantity.

## TWO'S COMPLIMENT

2’s complement A number formed by adding 1 to the 1’s compliment of a number. The 2’s complement representation has become the standard method of storing signed binary integers. It allows the representation of an n-bit number in the range – 2n to 2n-1, and has the significant advantage of only h...

## Exclusive-OR or XOR Gate

The Exclusive-OR or XOR gate is a two-input circuit that will give a HIGH output if either, but not both, of the inputs are HIGH. The XOR function is an interesting and useful variation of the basic OR function. Its function can be stated as ‘Either A or B, but not both’. The XOR gate produces a...

## Binary number

A binary number is made of 0s and 1s. In the binary number system only two symbols, 0 and 1, are used to represent numeric values. The symbol “0“ represents the value “zero” while the symbol “1” represents the value “one”. Since there are only two symbols in the binary number system, the value “...

## Evolution Of The Computer- A Brief History

The concept of calculating machines evolved long before the invention of electrical and electronic devices , mechanical and mechanical devices.

## Introduction To Operating System

An operating system may be defined as a system software which acts as an intermediary between the user and the hardware.

To express the value of a given octal number as its decimal equivalent, add the octal digits after each digit has been multiplied by its associated weight.

To convert a hexadecimal to decimal, begin by multiplying each of the hexadecimal digits by their positional weight values as expressed in decimal. Then the resulting values are added to obtain the value of the decimal number.

## LEXICAL ANALYSIS

Lexical analysis In this phase, the source program is scanned for lexical units (known as tokens) namely, identifier, operator delimiter, etc. and classify them according to their types. A table, called symbol table, is constructed to record the type and attributes information of each user-defin...

## COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS AND PROGRAMMING IN C

C stands out among general-purpose programming languages for its unrivaled mix of portability,power,flexibility and elegance.The language has block structures,stand-alone functions,a compact set of keywords,and very few restrictions.

## Base Of a Number

The base, or radix, of any number system is determined by the number of digit symbols in the system. For example, binary is a base-2 number system since it uses two symbols and decimal is a base-10 system since it uses ten symbols.

## COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS AND PROGRAMMING IN C

A computer is 'an automatic electronic apparatus for making calculations or controlling operations that are expressible in numerical or logical terms'.

## NOT GATE

NOT GATE also called INVERTER.The inverter is a little different from AND and OR gates as it has only one input and one output. Whatever logic state is applied to the input, the opposite state will appear at the output. The NOT function is denoted by a horizontal bar over the value to be invert...

## SECONDARY MEMORY

There are four main types of secondary storage devices available in a computer system: Disk drives CD drives (CD-R, CD-RW, and DVD) Tape drives USB flash drives

## 1'S COMPLIMENT

1’s complement A number system that was used in some computers to represent negative numbers. To form 1s complement of a number, each bit of the number is inverted which means zeros are replaced with ones and ones with zero.

To convert from decimal whole numbers to octal, the systematic approach called the repeated-division-by-8 method is used. This method is explained by the following Converting (359)10 to octal. (a) Divide the decimal number by eight and obtain a quotient and a remainder. (b) Divide the quotien...