When we first introduced gravitational potential energy in Section 7.1, we assumed that the earth’s gravitational force on a body of mass m doesn’t depend on the body’s height. This led to the expression U = mgy

## Simple Harmonic motion

The simplest kind of oscillation occurs when the restoring force Fx is directly proportional to the displacement from equilibrium x. This happens if the spring in Figs. 14.1 and 14.2 is an ideal one that obeys Hooke’s law

## eLastiCitY and pLastiCitY

Hooke’s law—the proportionality of stress and strain in elastic deformations— has a limited range of validity. In the preceding section we used phrases such as “if the forces are small enough that Hooke’s law is obeyed.” Just what are the limitations of Hooke’s law? What’s more, if you pull, sque...

## A point Mass inside a spherical shell

We assumed at the beginning that the point mass m was outside the spherical shell, so our proof is valid only when m is outside a spherically symmetric mass distribution.

## circular motion and the equations of SHM

To explore the properties of simple harmonic motion, we must express the displacement x of the oscillating body as a function of time, x1t2.

## Describing oscillation

n. A body with mass m rests on a frictionless horizontal guide system, such as a linear air track, so it can move along the x-axis only. The body is attached to a spring of negligible mass that can be either stretched or compressed. The left end of the spring is held fixed, and the right end is a...

We still need to find the displacement x as a function of time for a harmonic oscillator. Equation (14.4) for a body in SHM along the x-axis is identical to Eq. (14.8) for the x-coordinate of the reference point in uniform circular motion with constant angular speed v = 2k/m

## Shear Stress and Strain

The third kind of stress-strain situation is called shear. The ribbon in Fig. 11.12c is under shear stress: One part of the ribbon is being pushed up while an adjacent part is being pushed down, producing a deformation of the ribbon.

## satellites: Circular orbits

A circular orbit, like trajectory 4 in Fig. 13.14, is the simplest case. It is also an important case, since many artificial satellites have nearly circular orbits and the orbits of the planets around the sun are also fairly circular

## tensile and Compressive stress and strain

The simplest elastic behavior to understand is the stretching of a bar, rod, or wire when its ends are pulled (Fig. 11.12a). Figure 11.14 shows an object that initially has uniform cross-sectional area A and length l0. We then apply forces of equal magnitude F# but opposite directions at the ends...

## Nature of physics

Introduce the systems of units used to describe physical quantities and discuss ways to describe the accuracy of a number.

## Kepler's second Law

In a small time interval dt, the line from the sun S to the planet P turns through an angle du. The area swept out is the colored triangle with height r, base length r du, and area dA = 1 2 r2 du in . The rate at which area is swept out,

## Bulk stress and strain

When a scuba diver plunges deep into the ocean, the water exerts nearly uniform pressure everywhere on his surface and squeezes him to a slightly smaller volume. This is a different situation from the tensile and compressive stresses and strains we have discussed.

## pressure gauges

The simplest pressure gauge is the open-tube manometer . The U-shaped tube contains a liquid of density r, often mercury or water. The left end of the tube is connected to the container where the pressure p is to be measured, and the right end is open to the atmosphere

## SOLVED PROBLEMS

HERE ARE SOME EXAMPLES TO DEAL WITH

## Kepler's first law

First consider the elliptical orbits described in Kepler’s first law. Figure 13.18 shows the geometry of an ellipse. The longest dimension is the major axis, with half-length a; this half-length is called the semi-major axis.

## Bernoulli's equation

According to the continuity equation, the speed of fluid flow can vary along the paths of the fluid. The pressure can also vary; it depends on height as in the static situation (see Section 12.2), and it also depends on the speed of flow. We can derive an important relationship called Bernoulli’s...

## Solved examples on SHM

PROBLEM SOLVING STRATEGY ON ENERGY MOMENTUM OF SHM

## Conditions for equilibrium

In this chapter we’ll apply the first and second conditions for equilibrium to situations in which a rigid body is at rest (no translation or rotation). Such a body is said to be in static equilibrium

## Buoyancy

A body immersed in water seems to weigh less than when it is in air. When the body is less dense than the fluid, it floats. The human body usually floats in water, and a helium-filled balloon floats in air. These are examples of buoyancy, a phenomenon described by Archimedes’s principle:

## Estimates and order of magnitudes

We have stressed the importance of knowing the accuracy of numbers that represent physical quantities. But even a very crude estimate of a quantity often gives us useful information. Sometimes we know how to calculate a certain quantity, but we have to guess at the data we need for the calculation. ...

## Angular SHM

A mechanical watch keeps time based on the oscillations of a balance wheel (Fig. 14.19). The wheel has a moment of inertia I about its axis. A coil spring exerts a restoring torque tz that is proportional to the angular displacement u from the equilibrium position. We write tz = -ku, where k (the...

## viscosity

Viscosity is internal friction in a fluid. Viscous forces oppose the motion of one portion of a fluid relative to another. Viscosity is the reason it takes effort to paddle a canoe through calm water, but it is also the reason the paddle works. Viscous effects are important in the flow of fluids ...

## PASCAL LAW

Pressure applied to an enclosed fluid is transmitted undiminished to every portion of the fluid and the walls of the containing vessel.

## Interpreting E, K, and U in SHM

the energy quantities E, K, and U at x = 0, x = ±A/2, and x = ±A. Figure 14.15 is a graphical display of Eq. (14.21); energy (kinetic, potential, and total) is plotted vertically and the coordinate x is plotted horizontally. The parabolic curve in Fig. 14.15a represents the potential energy U = ...

## Standards and Units

Experiments require measurements, and we generally use numbers to describe the results of measurements. Any number that is used to describe a physical phenomenon quantitatively is called a physical quantity.

## Kepler's third Law

We have already derived Kepler’s third law for the particular case of circular orbits. Equation (13.12) shows that the period of a satellite or planet in a circular orbit is proportional to the 3 2 power of the orbit radius.

## Determining the value of G

To determine the value of the gravitational constant G, we have to measure the gravitational force between two bodies of known masses m1 and m2 at a known distance r. The force is extremely small for bodies that are small enough to be brought into the laboratory, but it can be measured with an in...

## Using and Converting Units

An equation must always be dimensional consistent. You can’t add apples and automobiles; two terms may be added or equated only if they have the same units.

Here are some terms that we’ll use in discussing periodic motions of all kinds: